Tuesday 21 Nov 2017

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THE HISTORY OF RIJEKA.

Traces of prehistoric settlements can be found in the region. A long time ago a Celtic tribe lived here. In the ancient time was the town's name Tarsattica. The name Trsat may come from the Celtic word "tarsa", meaning hill above the river. There were settlements of the Illyrian tribe "Liburni" with sailors, pirates and shipbuilders. The oldest traces of man's presence in the Rijeka region of today date from the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages. The ruins of the prehistoric hill-forts date from the bronze and iron ages. Such a settlement dominated the Rijeka Bay and secured the port in the time of the Illyrian tribes (Liburnia) as well. The Romans relocated the town center closer to the sea, on the right bank of the mouth of the Rijecina River. Numerous archaeological sites (the foundations of Roman fortified walls, walls of dwellings, thermal bath ruins, the Roman portal prove the urban level of the Roman Tarsattica. Blessed with gentle slopes and a narrow coastal zone, abundant with fresh water springs, secluded by a bay having the properties of a natural port, this settlement possessed all the predispositions required for the development into a major seaport and trading town. This prompted the newly arrived Croats to overtake Tarsattica and to commence building a new settlement. The first original document on this medieval settlement dates from the first half of the 13th century. However, historical sources speak of two settlements. Trsat was lying on the hill on the left bank of the Rjecina River on the site of the previous Liburnian settlement Tarsata, and Rijeka on the shore-line where the Roman Tarsatica was. Rijeka of that period was a small fortified town, enclosed within the town walls with several defense towers. The town was divided into two parts. In the upper part was a medieval castle and the church of St. Vitus (thus the name Flumen Sancti Viti), while the lower popular part, a commercial and trading center, commonly is known to its inhabitants as Rika or Rijeka. At the beginning, as well as towards the end of the 16th century was Rijeka in hands of the Devin nobility, the Princes of Krk (the Frankopans), followed by the family of Walsea. From 1466 it was in the possession of the Habsburgs. Significant economical development began in the 16th century, with the trade of iron, oil, wood, wool, cattle and leather. Frequent attacks by the Turks, wars between the pretenders of to the Hungarian thrown, as well as the long struggles between the Uskoks and Venice served only to disrupt trade routes. The arrival of the Jesuits in Rijeka and the founding of Gymnasium considerably improved its educational and cultural life and strengthened Romanism to the loss of the Croatian language and the Glagolitic script. The Rijeka economy began to flourish again in the 18th century. At that time, the Emperor Charles VI proclaimed Rijeka as a free port. Shortly after uses Hungary, a rising power within the Habsburg Monarchy, Rijeka as it's gateway to the world. At the turn of the 18th century was Rijeka under French rule and then again under Austrian rule. In 1848, the year of the civic revolutions, Rijeka was united. The struggle for Rijeka between Croatia and Hungary continued to escalate. With the Croatian-Hungarian Deal of 1868, known as the Rijeka Patch, a provisory was established according to which Rijeka came under the direct rule of Hungary. Rijeka rapidly developed into the largest Hungarian maritime and seaport emporium. Upon the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, Rijeka and Susak became a part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with Zagreb as the capital, but shortly after it was occupied by the Italians. Since Italy had not made any demands on Rijeka. A transitory period evolved the rule of D'Annunzio, the independent State of Rijeka and the inevitable fall of Rijeka to Italy in 1924. Rijeka's economy deteriorated rapidly and Rijeka was transformed into a small provincial town. Susak, which had become a part of the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with Belgrade as the capital, now enjoyed prosperity through the broad hinterland with which it was united. Rijeka, together with neighbouring Istria, was the first in the world to give resistance to fascism and during World War II it was a part of the anti-fascist front. Following the capitulation of Italy in 1943, Rijeka and Susak were occupied and held by the Germans until liberated in May 3, 1945. According to the Peace Treaty of 1947 held in Paris, Rijeka was once again reunited with the mother country Croatia within the framework of Yugoslavia. In 1948 the towns of Rijeka and Susak were joined to form the single town - Rijeka, which began to develop vigorously in various fields. After the reconstruction period, Rijeka emerged as the mayor sea-port of socialist Yugoslavia. The traditional industries of Rijeka revived. Shipping companies expanded. Five main roads leading towards Zagreb, Ljubljana, Trieste, Pula and Zadar, together with the railways allowed for the development of the tertiary sector. The expansive social and economic growth of Rijeka caused the number of inhabitants to increase. Today Rijeka with its suburbs has about 200.000 inhabitants. In 1991 Croatia became an independent and sovereign state. Although no armed skirmishes, as a part of the war for the homeland, took place in Rijeka, the Yugoslav and Serbian aggression was indirectly and continuously present in the town. The consequences of the war were economic stagnation, redirection of the economy to war production and aiding the supply of the front throughout Croatia.

governors's palace

port Rijeka

Korzo Rijeka

Capuchin church Rijeka


THE CITY TOWER.


The city tower on which is a large clock has become a place for young people to make dates under.
The upper part of the City tower was heightened, rebuilt and decorated in Baroque style in 17th century, with busts of Habsburg emperors. Above the main entrance there are reliefs of coats of arms (the Habsburg two headed eagle) and the inscription from 1695 on the architrave.
In 1750 Rijeka was destroyed in an earthquake. Maria Teresia assigned funds for restoring the town with preserving the Old City of Rijeka.
After that the new part of Rijeka was built on the ground raised by carted material in front of the Old City. In that time the City Tower got a new monumental portal. The sculptor Antonio Michelazzi replaced the mentioned emperors' busts on the battlement of the portal. In 1784 the town Council bought four clocks from Ljubljana to be installed in the tower. They functioned till 1873 when were replaced by a new mechanism from Vienna used at the International show. The reconstruction of the City Tower was completed in 1801 by the project of Antun Gnamb


THE OLD GATE.

It is confirmed today that THE "OLD GATE" is the oldest historical monument of Rijeka. Since 1700 many humanistic scientists have been attracted to and interested in the monument. In 19th century it was believed that THE GATE was a Roman triumphal arch erected to honour emperor Claudius. Later people believed it was the town gate, while Rijeka's Cimiotti proved that it was the gate of a fortification. Present day archaeologist Dr. Mate Suic stated more precisely that it was praetorium gate, because the only decoration left on the monument is the one facing the sea.

THE CHURCH OF ST. VITO.

The church of St. Vito in Rijeka The church of St. Vito, the Jesuit rotunda (now a Cathedral) was constructed on the sight where the small church dedicated to the patron of Rijeka, St. Vito used to stand. The Jesuits started a complete project for building the church. Started on the 15th June 1638, and with interruptions, the construction took one hundred years. The church resemblances to the Venetian church St. Maria della Salute.
The church interior is dominated by strong pillars which support arches of chapels housing polychrome marble altars designed by well-known baroque altar artists Leonardo Pacassi, Pasquale Lazzarini and Antonio Michelazzi between 1696 and 1740. The altar is adorned with sculptures of St. Vito and St. Modesto.

CARNIVAL IN RIJEKA.

Carnival in RijekaSince the Middle Ages the town Rijeka is very well known for its carnival celebrations and parties.
The carnival tradition in Rijeka is a special mixture of the European city-carnival and the Venetian and Austrian carnival, with elements of folklore and mythology of the old Slavs. In spite of bad weather carnival events are being held in market places and streets of the town. The highlight of all the carnival events is the INTERNATIONAL CARNIVAL PARADE on the last CARNIVAL Sunday.

governors's palace

port Rijeka

Korzo Rijeka

Capuchin church Rijeka

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